Security Council debate on the Charter: countries in conflict denounce violations of the principles of national sovereignty and territorial integrity of States
The Security Council continued its public debate this morning on “Respect for the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security”, an opportunity for the thirty speakers to emphasize that this the founding document remains a powerful and universal instrument, while calling for further translation of its provisions into actions. Several countries experiencing conflicts have denounced attacks on their sovereignty and territorial integrity, in violation of the Charter, like Iraq, which did not want “its territory to become a battlefield”.
“The Charter of the United Nations was written with the blood of the victims of war and armed conflict”, wanted to remind Kazakhstan of the delegations that participated in this debate started yesterday and whose long list of speakers will be exhausted on Monday. Any violation of its articles can repeat the mistakes of the past, warned the representative.
Iraq, a country in the news these days, immediately assured that it remained faithful to the principles of the Charter, before denouncing those who did not respect it by using force and violating its national sovereignty and its territorial integrity. “We do not want our territory to become a center of conflict and of actions which would give free rein to terrorists and Daesh,” said the Iraqi representative.
Yemen recalled “suffering from the war against Iranian-backed Houthi militias” and called on the Security Council to put more pressure on the Houthis to fulfill their commitments and stop compromising the stability of the country. country.
For its part, Georgia remembered that 12 years ago, it was subjected to military aggression by the Russian Federation leading to the occupation of 20% of its territory, denouncing in passing “the destructive role of a permanent member of the Security Council “which led to the violation of the territorial sovereignty of two of its neighbors. Only by respecting the principles of the Charter and international law will the international community be able to achieve its promise of ensuring peace and security, concluded the representative.
The Non-Aligned Movement also insisted that every State has an obligation to avoid, in its international relations, the use of threats or the use of force against territorial integrity and the political independence of any other state. The opposite amounts to violating international law and the Charter of the United Nations. He also urged the Security Council, the General Assembly and all United Nations bodies to make greater use of the International Court of Justice as a source of interpretation of international law.
In this regard, the Netherlands expressed pride in hosting the Court as well as the International Criminal Court and other international judicial mechanisms which play a key role in the international legal order.
More pessimistic, Venezuela asked to “not let the United Nations die and face the same fate as the disappeared League of Nations”, after pointing out “the emergence of supremacist ideologies which deny equality and diversity of humanity , fearing to see the world on the brink of a conflict with unforeseeable consequences. He denounced “a state which proclaims its military power and its exceptional ideology to impose its national sovereignty on all the peoples of the world”.
Myanmar, claiming to have honored its international obligations as a responsible Member of the United Nations, stressed the importance of respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, as well as the principle of non-interference. The representative urged the Council, in carrying out its mandate, to apply the principles of objectivity, impartiality and non-selectivity. In the same vein, Oman rejected any selective application of the principles of the Charter as well as the use of force.
For its part, the International Committee of the Red Cross recalled that one of the objectives of the United Nations, according to the Charter, is to resolve humanitarian problems. As one of the oldest humanitarian organizations, he stressed the need to uphold international humanitarian law.
The Charter outlines the framework for decency, the behavior of states, and their rights and obligations, synthesized Canada. It tells us what to do in Syria, for the Rohingya and for the whole world. The representative invited to see the Charter as it is: “a living document that guides us and allows the United Nations to evolve to resolve emerging issues”.
The Canadian representative concluded by referring, with a tight heart, to the death of the 176 passengers on flight PS752 to Tehran, including 63 Canadians. There is every reason to believe, he said, that the plane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile and possibly by accidental fire. Pleading for justice to be done, he quoted Prime Minister Justin Trudeau who demanded a credible and comprehensive investigation, with the participation of Canadian experts.
Respecting the international legal order and the Charter also passing through peacekeeping operations, Ireland paid tribute to the 3,000 peacekeepers from 120 countries who have lost their lives on mission since over 60 years.
The Security Council will conclude this debate on Monday 13 January at 3 p.m.
MAINTAINING INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY
Respect for the Charter of the United Nations ( S / 2020/1 )
Mr DARJA BAVDAZ KURET (Slovenia) underlined that the whole legal order which governs international relations and the structure of collective security is based on the principles of the Charter which are broad enough to cover new challenges and which remain just as relevant than when the United Nations was created. The Charter gave the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Council has succeeded in some cases and failed in many others. Its members, who assume their responsibilities on behalf of all other states, must exceed their national interests, hammered the representative. The Council, he said, can do better to exploit the full potential of the Charter, beyond Chapter VII. He must, explained the representative, be more active in conflict prevention. We encourage him, he added, to activate Chapter VI more often and to use the means to analyze crises and risks as soon as possible.
The Council, he continued, must address the underlying causes of the conflicts, bearing in mind that massive human rights violations are an alarming indicator for a potential conflict. When creating a mission, the Council must focus on the rule of law and justice and work closely with the Peacebuilding Commission. Peace and justice are being strengthened, said the representative, encouraging the Secretary-General to act on Article 99 of the Charter. One of the main intersections between the Charter, the Council and the rule of law is respect for rules and decisions, in particular those of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), said the representative. He welcomed, in concluding,
M. MANSOUR AYYAD SH. A. ALOTAIBI (Kuwait) said that this session was an extension of the one organized by Kuwait in 2018 on the revitalization of the Charter of the United Nations. With regard to tensions in the Middle East, the representative reiterated the Secretary-General’s call for restraint in order to find a lasting solution to the conflicts. The delegate recalled that his mandate on the Security Council had ended nine days ago, stressing that he had carried out this mandate in accordance with the principles and objectives of the Charter, in particular Chapter VI. “We have presented a resolution on cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States,” he said, saying that he expected to follow up on this resolution, especially since the agenda of the Council of security is filled by issues concerning Arab states.
Mr KAIRAT UMAROV (Kazakhstan) considered it important to remember that the Charter was written “with the blood of the victims of war and armed conflict”. Any violation of its articles, especially those which enshrine the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, can cause the tragic mistakes of the past. Unfortunately, the representative worried, the current situation shows that the Charter and the principles of international law are being challenged, pushing the world to the brink of total war. There is therefore an urgent need to renew the commitment of all States to the generally accepted norms and principles of international law. The representative recalled the idea of his Chairman to convene a “United Nations conference at the highest level to reaffirm the fundamental principles of international law”. Such an initiative would be particularly relevant to the seventy-fifth anniversary of the United Nations, he said, urging the Secretary-General to convene the conference during the next General Assembly in September. The Charter and other norms and principles of international law were not imposed on us. We have collectively and voluntarily accepted them and we should therefore avoid situations where they are used selectively, insisted the representative.
He, in turn, considered that the most effective tool available to the Security Council for maintaining peace and security are regional organizations. He recalled another initiative of his country which is the creation of the Conference for Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) which “has been working perfectly for more than a quarter of a century”. Today, in this environment of mistrust, mechanisms like the CICA have become the most effective tools for conflict prevention. The member countries of the Conference are also striving to make it a fully-fledged regional organization and Kazakhstan, which chairs it in 2020, will spare no effort in this regard, the representative promised.
Mr. ABDULLAH ALI FADHEL AL-SAADI (Yemen) recalled that his country had been one of the first signatories of the Charter, before stressing the importance of multilateralism. Yemen is suffering from the war waged by Iranian-backed Houthi militias, he said. These militias continue to refuse to honor commitments arising from Security Council resolutions, he said, adding that, at the same time, the Government of Yemen has always wanted to achieve lasting peace. The delegate supported the idea of a federated Yemen and supported the efforts of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General. Finally, the delegate called on the Council to put more pressure on the Houthis so that they fulfill their commitments and stop compromising the stability of the country.
Ms. ANA SILVIA RODRA�GUEZ ABASCAL (Cuba) denounced transgressions of the Charter of the United Nations, which she believed were daily occurrences, such as the selective assassinations of foreign leaders and unilateral sanctions against third countries. For the representative, the Security Council must carry out its function in accordance with the provisions of the Charter, without discrimination, avoiding double standards, and respecting law and justice. Our duty is to find peaceful solutions to conflicts, reminded the representative, for whom the Security Council must exhaust all possible solutions to preserve life and avoid war.
The Council, she continued, must promote a just and equitable international order, defend multilateralism and refrain from interference in the affairs of the General Assembly. The Security Council must be transparent and fair, also demanded the representative, who added that Cuba will never bow down when faced with the blockade of the United States, a blockade which is imposed in defiance of the rejection of the entire international community. Cuba will take all necessary measures to defend its sovereignty and independence, she said.
Mr. NA�STOR POPOLIZIO (Peru) deplored the numerous violations of Council resolutions and recalled that one of the touchstones of the international order is the prohibition of the use of force. He expressed concern about the interpretations of international law in certain countries which jeopardize the system of collective security. He stressed the relevance of the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and urged the Security Council to promote dialogue and the means of peaceful settlement of disputes, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of the Charter. The United Nations must be the driving force behind international cooperation strategies, concluded the delegate of Peru.
Mr. AGUSTA�N SANTOS MARAVER (Spain) made three suggestions for improving the work of the Security Council. Firstly, concerning working methods, he recommended institutionalizing the monthly outgoing presidency debriefing sessions, the “Toledo” format, which Spain promoted during its recent term in the Council. synergies, he said, by appointing a penholder for each dossier on a given country to be the chairman of the corresponding sanctions committee. Second, the Security Council’s mandates must constitute real solid, realistic, authentic and flexible roadmaps. They must have a direct impact on people, especially victims of conflict. Third, the representative stressed the great potential of tripartite cooperation between the Security Council, the European Union and the African Union in all areas of collective security in crisis management. Deeper and more effective triangular cooperation requires a strategic partnership framework that addresses all issues of common interest and fosters a close relationship of this Council with the Peace and Security Council of the African Union and with the Political and sedimentation of the European Union, argued the representative.
Mr. ABDALLAH Y. AL-MOUALLIMI (Saudi Arabia) reiterated his country’s commitment to peace and to the Charter of the United Nations. We seek to promote peaceful settlement and conflict prevention, he said, adding that respecting the Charter is more crucial than ever. He denounced the situation in the occupied Palestinian territories and in the other occupied Arab territories. “You must compel Iran to comply with international law and to cease its destabilizing activities in the region,” he told council members. He condemned the recent bombings of two bases in Iraq, in violation of the sovereignty of that country. My country will always support Iraq, said the delegate. He insisted on his country’s peace efforts on the international scene, Saudi Arabia having notably promoted the peace agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea. His peace-loving country will continue to play a responsible role in promoting international law, concluded the Saudi delegate.
Ms KSHENUKA DHIRENI SENEWIRATNE (Sri Lanka) said that the time had come to mark our attachment to the Charter. The difficulties must be resolved collectively, she recommended, hoping that the international community would build consensus and find solutions that correspond to the aspirations of States and peoples. The representative insisted that threats against multilateralism be addressed immediately. She underlined her country’s contribution to the work of the United Nations, in particular its contribution to United Nations peacekeeping operations. She concluded by expressing her wish for a rules-based world order. A world order where multilateralism and cooperation prevail, she added.
Mr. CARLOS DANIEL AMORA�N TENCONI (Uruguay) recalled the responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security which had been entrusted to the Security Council by the Charter. As peace must be sought by peaceful solutions, according to the same Charter, the Council has a central role in the matter and must act in cooperation with the General Assembly, he said. He also advocated a strengthening of the Council’s relations with the ICJ, before insisting on preventive diplomacy. As a member of the Accountability, Coherence and Transparency Group (ACT Group), Uruguay has promoted transparency in the Security Council when the country was a member, he said.
An important aspect of the maintenance of international peace and security is the promotion of international criminal justice, he also pleaded hoping that the Security Council would play a more active role in the event of gross violations of human rights. man, prosecuting the perpetrators. In addition, a number of Member States do not comply with Security Council resolutions, the representative expressed concern, calling on not to lose sight of the principles of non-interference and self-determination. He recommended that the Council take action respecting the principle of proportionality. With regard to the use of the veto, he considered that it did nothing to contribute to transparency and that it weakened this body, while failing to comply with the obligation to protect the population.
Mr. RICHARD ARBEITER (Canada) told the story of his grandmother whose “life coincides with the Charter of the United Nations”. My grandmother, he said, was a remarkable woman who belonged to the generation born between the two wars, many of whose congeners did not experience the birth of the Charter. Born in Lodz, Poland, in 1921, seventh of eight children, Bru’cha, prayer in Hebrew, fled persecution in Poland, survived the holocaust in what is today Russia. She was moved, stateless in Autiche, then arrived penniless in Canada. She worked hard, raised her children, saved, prayed, loved, lived, before she died. It was in 1948 that, with husband and children, she arrived in Quebec City by boat, as so many refugees and migrants still do today.
In 1956, just a few years after obtaining Canadian nationality, she heard about the very first United Nations peacekeeping operation and said to herself: it is the birth of multilateralism. In 1960, she saw the United Nations grow by 17 new states, including 15 newly independent African states, and she thought: the international community is getting stronger, richer and more diverse. Between 1960 and 1970, she said with others, cooperation is really used to solve global problems. Shortly thereafter, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) was born, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) entered into force and the very first conferences on the environment, food and women were convened . My grandmother rejoiced: the Charter continued to urge the international community to work together and thereby limited the behavior of States. In 1977, she saw her country elected to the Security Council impose with others the arms embargo on South Africa. A decade later, in 1987, the Montreal Protocol on the Ozone Layer was adopted in his city, a protocol which, at the age of 66, gave him the feeling of a UN capable of developing unforeseen issues. In 2000, at 79 years old, Bru’cha saw the unanimous adoption of Security Council resolution 1325 when his grandson entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. But in 2000, at 92, she watched with disarray her life parading on television with the record number of refugees, displaced persons and asylum seekers.
At this time of resurgence of authoritarianism, growing anti-Semitism and hatred of all kinds, it is difficult not to draw a parallel. But the big difference, said the representative, is the Charter of the United Nations and the collective safety net it seeks to establish. The Charter outlines the framework for decency, the behavior of States, their rights and obligations. It tells us what to do in Syria, for the Rohingya and for the whole world. We must see the Charter as it is: a living document that guides us but which allows the United Nations to evolve to resolve emerging issues. It is not a question of reopening it but of revitalizing some of its provisions because there is nothing to prevent, for example, creative use of Article 99 to support conflict prevention. More can also be done to strengthen regional arrangements, and it can also be recognized that the measures envisaged in Article 41 are not comprehensive since the form and extent of potential non-military measures are left to the discretion of the Security Council. For us, said the representative, respecting the Charter means seeing it as flexible enough to respond to current challenges.
The representative concluded with a heavy heart by the deaths of the 176 passengers on flight PS752 to Tehran, including 63 Canadians. There is every reason to believe, he said, that the plane was shot down by a surface-to-air missile and possibly by accidental fire. Canada, he said, remains committed to its diplomacy with Iran, which it has asked to let its experts participate in the identification and search for the bodies. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau also called for a credible and comprehensive investigation, with the participation of Canadian experts, said the representative.
Mr. MARK ZELLENRATH (Netherlands) expressed concern about recent developments in the Middle East and said that it was imperative to end the use of force and open the way for dialogue. He cited the responsibility of all Member States to strengthen the multilateral system by setting an example of what his country is doing in this regard, particularly in terms of conflict prevention and accountability. In the most fragile regions of the world, the Netherlands is helping to set up early warning systems and to respond to the root causes of conflicts. This is done through peacebuilding programs, transitional justice mechanisms, capacity building in terms of security and judicial institutions or through monitoring mechanisms led by civil society. Regarding the root causes of conflicts, the representative stressed the importance of the participation of women in peace and political processes, explaining that his country facilitates the participation of women in these processes, particularly in Libya, Yemen, Afghanistan and Colombia.
The representative then recalled that, on the issue of accountability, The Hague is proud to host the International Court of Justice, the International Criminal Court, the Residual International Mechanism of Criminal Tribunals, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and many other organizations that play a key role in the legal order and the United Nations Team of Investigators tasked with holding Daesh / Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant to account for its crimes (UNITAD). They also play a leading role in finalizing a convention on international cooperation in the investigation and prosecution of crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes (the MLA initiative),
ROBERT MARDINI, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), considered that the Charter of the United Nations and international humanitarian law are like the two laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize of 1901: Frederic Passy, peace activist, and Henry Dunant, activist for better protection of civilians in armed conflict. The Charter includes rules on declarations of war – jus ad bellum – and international humanitarian law applies to war – jus in bello-. These two distinct bodies of law complement each other to prevent wars, on the one hand, and to better protect civilians, on the other. In these times of tension and uncertainty, the representative insisted on this protection, that of civilians, medical units, transport, cultural goods and goods essential to survival.
One of the objectives of the United Nations, according to the Charter, is to resolve humanitarian problems, he continued. This is the reason why the Security Council deals with humanitarian issues in armed conflict. It is responsible for both the maintenance of international peace and security and the resolution of humanitarian crises. As one of the oldest and largest humanitarian organizations, the ICRC knows only too well the suffering endured when a conflict breaks out. The Security Council and the international community must therefore redouble their efforts to prevent wars, but if they do occur, they must do their utmost to ensure that the parties and those who support them respect and ensure respect for international humanitarian law. This is what, in practice,
Mr. RODRIGO A. CARAZO (Costa Rica) said that the anniversary of the Charter of the United Nations should lead to action to translate words into action and quickly and thoroughly fulfill the mandates entrusted by the Charter. It is also a time to consolidate the reforms that make the United Nations system as a whole, and the Security Council in particular, more efficient, accountable, consistent and transparent. For the United Nations to take the reins of global governance, the Security Council must, according to Costa Rica, assume its responsibilities in the maintenance of international peace and security, take into account human rights in its actions and improve its work with regard to conflict prevention.
The representative also denounced the use of the right of veto by permanent members of the Council, in particular in cases of atrocious crimes, explaining that this betrays the confidence of millions of people who believe in the United Nations. He said he supported Liechtenstein’s proposal to seize the General Assembly whenever the veto was used.
Mr BRIAN PATRICK FLYNN (Ireland) said that the very idea of a rules-based world order is being challenged and weakened today. In these times of tension, the Irish delegate called for de-escalation and reiterated the importance of the United Nations and the leading role of the Council in conflict prevention and resolution. He then spoke of his country’s participation in peace operations for more than 60 years and paid tribute to the more than 3,000 peacekeepers from 120 countries who lost their lives on mission. Quite frankly, this Council is not fulfilling its responsibilities, continued the delegate. He denounced the use of the right of veto against draft resolutions which aim to alleviate suffering as in Syria. Finally, the delegate urged Council members to overcome their divisions.
Ms. GHASAQ YOUSIF ABDALLA SHAHEEN (United Arab Emirates) called for diplomatic resources to be used at this critical moment of tension in the Middle East to spare the region from further escalation. She noted that the failure to comply with the provisions of the Charter in recent decades had increased frustration and chaos, citing in particular the violations of the Charter currently taking place in the Middle East, in particular on the part of ” state and non-state actors who violate the principles of sovereignty and non-interference. At this point, it is important for Member States, she suggested, to strengthen their commitment to the Charter and international law, which are the main guarantors of international peace and security,
Ms. Shaheen then proposed that the Security Council strengthen its effectiveness by consulting and coordinating its action with the countries concerned which are on the menu of its work program. Likewise, regional and subregional organizations can, she argued, play a greater role in managing regional tensions and ensuring security and stability. The Council could, for example, consult the League of Arab States and the African Union in the context of the sensitive situation prevailing in the Middle East, she suggested. The delegate also mentioned the humanitarian cost of conflicts, which is compounded by the inconsistent implementation of the Charter. She promised that the United Arab Emirates would continue to contribute to alleviate the humanitarian crises in the region,
Mr. BAKHTIYOR IBRAGIMOV (Uzbekistan) said that Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations not only stressed the importance of ensuring international peace and security, but also called for collective measures to achieve this goal. In other words, this Article highlights the importance of multilateralism as a prerequisite for the preservation of international peace and stability. The representative said that the worsening of terrorist threats posed serious challenges to peace and security. That is why, he said, the President of Uzbekistan has launched an initiative to develop a United Nations convention on the rights of young people aimed at strengthening efforts at global, national and regional levels to meet the needs of young people, build their capacities and extend rights,
Mr. YASHAR T. ALIYEV (Azerbaijan), who spoke first on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said at the outset that the Movement is determined to support multilateralism with the United Nations at its heart. He indicated that, at the last Summit in Baku, on October 25 and 26, 2019, the Heads of State and Government of the Movement reaffirmed the validity of the objectives and principles of the Charter of the United Nations as well as the norms and principles of the international law to preserve and promote peace and security, the rule of law, economic development and social progress, and human rights for all.
The Movement remains concerned about the complex and difficult situation in the field of international disarmament and calls for increased efforts to break the current deadlock of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. The representative also stressed that every State has an obligation to avoid, in its international relations, the use or threat or use of force against the territorial integrity and political independence of any other State or in any other way that is inconsistent with the principles and objectives of the United Nations. Otherwise, it is a violation of international law and the Charter of the United Nations and must never be recognized as legitimate or used as a means of settling international disputes. Otherwise, the Movement calls for the revocation of unilateral coercive measures against Member States which are not authorized by the relevant organs of the United Nations and which do not comply with the principles of international law and the Charter, taking into account their extraterritorial implications and their illegality. The representative also reaffirmed the Movement’s principled position in favor of the peaceful settlement of conflicts. He also urged the Security Council, the General Assembly and all the organs of the United Nations to make greater use of the International Court of Justice as a source of advisory opinions and of interpretation of international law.
Then speaking in his national capacity, the representative of Azerbaijan, returned to “the new attempt made yesterday by Armenia to mislead the Security Council”. Armenian speculation and claims about the right to self-determination, he said, had nothing in common with this principle, as defined by the 1975 Helsinki Charter and Final Act and other international documents. He considered that the inaccurate statements of Armenia are all the more unacceptable that they were made to the Security Council which adopted four resolutions on the Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict and that the mandate of the process under way, under the OSCE umbrella is based on these resolutions. The delegation demands immediate withdrawal,
Mr. SOVANN KE (Cambodia) said it was important for the international community to ensure that the United Nations was more responsive, more transparent and more accountable. The changing realities of the twenty-first century demand that the Security Council act with determination, in cooperation and transparency, insisted the representative. One of the ways the Council can promote peace and security, he said, is to strengthen its commitment to peace operations by providing them with clear and focused mandates. Cambodia, which has deployed thousands of peacekeepers in sometimes very dangerous situations, knows the importance of this type of mandate which must benefit from political support and a financial envelope commensurate with the task. The international community must also, added the representative, focus on the peaceful resolution of disputes, through negotiation, mediation and dialogue. Respect for the Charter, he stressed, is respect for international law, the rejection of double standards, two measures in the application of this right and the abandonment of coercive economic measures. In turn, the representative stressed the role of regional organizations such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Ms. ELENE AGLADZE (Georgia) spoke of the disturbing experience of her own region where the destructive role of a member of the Security Council has led to the violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of two of its neighbors. 12 years ago, she recalled, Georgia suffered military aggression from the Russian Federation leading to the occupation of 20% of its territory. A few years later, Ukraine suffered the same fate, she lamented. After listing a set of Russian practices in the occupied territories that go against international law, the delegate concluded that it was only by respecting the principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international law that the international community will be able to fulfill its promise of ensuring peace and security.
Ms PENNELOPE ALTHEA BECKLES (Trinidad and Tobago) regretted that today’s discussion takes place against the backdrop of escalating tensions and threats to peace and security around the world. She called for multilateral, rather than unilateral, approaches, calling for strengthening partnerships through mutual respect and cooperation for the benefit of all humanity. It also recommended that the world respect the principles of the rule of international law and those established by the Charter of the United Nations, a good means to contribute significantly to the maintenance of world peace and security.
The representative stressed the vulnerability of women and girls in situations of armed conflict and demanded that they become equal partners in the collective efforts to build peaceful and sustainable societies and in the promotion of human rights. man. Trinidad and Tobago is also a strong supporter of the Arms Trade Treaty. The delegation also encourages the international community to strengthen the foundations and the role of the ICC in order to make it the court of excellence which brings to justice those accused of having committed serious crimes in the eyes of the international community. For this, all members of the international community should join it, asked the representative.
Mr. SAMUEL MONCADA (Venezuela) stressed the obligation for all Member States to respect the Charter in its entirety, saying that there was no possibility of deciding which section to accept or reject. We all accept, for example, the principles of political independence and sovereign equality of states, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, peaceful resolution of conflicts, the right to self-determination. The representative pointed to the emergence of supremacist ideologies, denying the equality and diversity of humanity, which puts the world on the brink of conflict with unforeseeable consequences. An armed conflict which threatens the existence of civilization by a State which believes itself to be above international legality. This state proclaims its military power and its exceptional ideology to impose its national sovereignty on all the peoples of the world, accused the representative. What authority does a government have to systematically violate the Charter of the United Nations when it carries out indiscriminate attacks and extrajudicial executions, when it violates territorial integrity or invades sovereign countries, when it violates the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs? asked, among others, Mr. Moncada. The answer is: “none”, he replied, saying that this authority does not exist. What authority does a government have to systematically violate the Charter of the United Nations when it carries out indiscriminate attacks and extrajudicial executions, when it violates territorial integrity or invades sovereign countries, when it violates the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs? asked, among others, Mr. Moncada. The answer is: “none”, he replied, saying that this authority does not exist. What authority does a government have to systematically violate the Charter of the United Nations when it carries out indiscriminate attacks and extrajudicial executions, when it violates territorial integrity or invades sovereign countries, when it violates the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs? asked, among others, Mr. Moncada. The answer is: “none”, he replied, saying that this authority does not exist.
The 193 Member States and the members of this Security Council, charged with taking measures to maintain or restore international peace and security, must avoid the catastrophe of war by defending the Charter. “We cannot let the UN die and experience the same fate as the vanished League of Nations. This failure led to the Second World War and it is our duty to prevent the Third World War, “warned the representative.
For Mr. MAHMADAMIN MAHMADAMINOV (Tajikistan) considered that the current situation requires on the part of all countries to act more firmly and to engage more strongly through regional cooperation and partnerships based on fair economic relations. , effective and mutually beneficial. Tajikistan therefore calls on all parties concerned to maximize their efforts to achieve a lasting settlement of recent and old conflicts in the world, in particular in the Middle East. The United Nations has a leading role to play in this regard, said the representative, hoping that it would coordinate the efforts of its Member States to meet current challenges and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
Having experienced a five-year civil war at the time of its creation as a sovereign state, Tajikistan is familiar with the serious consequences of conflict in terms of loss of life, displacement and economic impact. Over the past two decades, the country has advanced in many ways, said his representative, congratulating himself on achieving peace, stability and sustainable economic development. One of the lessons he would like to share with the international community is that only collective and coordinated action, coupled with regional and international cooperation, can overcome the forces of evil and global threats. In this context, the representative paid tribute to the important role played by regional organizations such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in the peace process in Tajikistan. He also recalled that the United Nations Regional Center for Preventive Diplomacy in Central Asia is today in Ashgabat.
Mr SATYENDRA PRASAD (Fiji) spoke of the serious and tangible consequences, in particular for women and children, when the Council failed to reach agreement. He called on the Council to act creatively with respect for the Charter, before stressing the importance of the role of regional organizations in the prevention and resolution of conflicts. He underscored the severity of the climate crisis, which constitutes the most serious threat to the peace and stability of the Pacific countries. This crisis only feeds extremism and international terrorism, he said. He underlined the slow evolution of the crisis, capable of weakening states once seen as robust. The climate crisis has all the characteristics of a war, he said. We are losing this war. ” Finally,
Mr. SUDQI ATALLAH ABD ALKADETR AL OMOUSH (Jordan) said that his government’s foreign policy was based in particular on respect for the Charter. The representative said that this policy particularly rejects the policy of double standards, two measures in the treatment of the Palestinian file. The UN will not fulfill its mandate if it does not respect its own resolutions, he warned, urging the international community to respect all the commitments emanating from UN resolutions, in particular the principle of non-interference. in the affairs of other countries. In favor of mediation and peaceful dispute resolution tools, Jordan believes that the United Nations must follow a de-escalation line in conflict resolution.
For the past 12 months, Jordan has chaired the Conference on the Creation of a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Region, said the delegate, conveying the conviction of the participants that necessary to maintain international peace and stability in the region. Reaffirming his support for the Secretary-General’s reform, Al Omoush said that the great challenges of the international community make the need for the modernization of the United Nations understood. These challenges require collective action by Member States. The international community must do everything to ensure justice, human rights and inclusive development prevail, he concluded.
Mr. MOHAMED AL HASSAN (Oman) recalled that peace is the most precious human value and that the Charter of the United Nations is the foundation of international relations. All states must commit themselves to the principles of the Charter, he said, rejecting any selective application of those principles and the use of force. Referring to the recent tensions, he considered that Council resolutions must achieve consensus and respect the sovereignty of States. Finally, the delegate of Oman called for increased concerted efforts to resolve the Palestinian question and the crisis in Yemen.
IVAN SIMONOVIC (Croatia) said that because of the cold war which had started just after the adoption of the Charter of the United Nations, many of the promises made in that document had not been fulfilled. He denounced the special powers attributed to the five permanent members of the Security Council, in particular their permanent presence in the body and their right of veto. These benefits had been given to them with the knowledge that they would use them responsibly and for the benefit of all people in all Member States, he said.
To make the Security Council more effective, the representative called for more cooperation and greater accountability at the global level. This is why Croatia supports the establishment of a code of conduct with regard to Council action relating to genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The country also supports the Franco-Mexican initiative proposing to permanent members to refrain from using their veto in case of evidence of mass atrocities. The delegate noted that these two initiatives do not require amendment of the Charter, an exercise which is extremely difficult.
Ms. RABAB FATIMA (Bangladesh) recalled that her country is an important contributor to peacekeepers and welcomes more than one million persecuted Rohingya on its soil. In doing so, Bangladesh prevented a potential destabilization of the region, she said. For the representative, the Charter of the United Nations has stood the test of time and shaped a rules-based world order. It remains a powerful and universal instrument accepted by all. But it is urgent to act and to translate words into action. According to the representative, the current reform of the United Nations can be a catalyst for ensuring more effective and results-oriented actions. Greater involvement of developing countries can also provide the necessary boost, she said. “We are going through a critical period where the very notion of multilateralism is at stake,” she noted, deeming it imperative that all the Members of the United Nations unite and commit to using the Charter in its true spirit, to meet global realities and the aspirations of present and future generations. Finally, Ms. Fatima called for a more innovative application of the principles of the Charter.
Mr. FRANCISCO DUARTE LOPES (Portugal) stressed that peace operations are the tool of choice available to the Security Council for maintaining peace and security. Supporting these operations has been and is the priority of Portuguese foreign policy. This commitment is also reflected in the presence of Portuguese personnel in eight of the current missions. The Peacekeeping Action initiative, the representative continued, and the Declaration of Joint Commitments demonstrate, if necessary, the positive steps that are being taken to enhance the impact of operations. We must, said the representative, focus on “the peace continuum” and on the importance of peacebuilding, that is, transition scenarios. The representative therefore called for more regular and stronger coordination between the Security Council and the Peacebuilding Commission and for a stronger focus on climate challenges and potential sources of conflict. The “capital” importance of increased participation by women and young people was illustrated in the current missions, he added.
In this year of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the United Nations, let us reaffirm our common commitment to multilateralism rooted in the rule of international law and in the principles and values of the Charter, concluded the representative. We owe it to the past to prevent the same tragic mistakes. We owe it to the present to alleviate the suffering of those trapped in conflict and poverty. We owe it to the future because we are the guardians of this “irreplaceable and essential” Organization.
MARIA THEOFILI (Greece) said that her country’s experience had convinced her of the high value of multilateralism. This is what guided Greece’s accession to the European Union and its support for the Charter of the United Nations, which prohibits the use of force or the threat of its use in international relations. The representative stressed respect for the rule of law in the management of the oceans, under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea which contributes, by its universal character, to the strengthening of peace, security and cooperation between nations.
Greece also insists that disputes between States be settled by peaceful means, but always on the basis of international law. Theofili said that Greece is a candidate for a non-permanent member of the Security Council for the period 2025-2026. This candidacy is guided by the country’s strong desire to uphold the Charter of the United Nations, as well as by its determination to work tirelessly for the maintenance of international peace and security.
Mr. ROBERT KAYINAMURA (Rwanda) said that the formation of the United Nations and its evolution over the years had shown that multilateral cooperation was essential for peace and security in the world. The role of the United Nations is however called into question and international treaties are put to the test. This means that international cooperation is at a crossroads with its cohort of challenges, including global warming and terrorism. However, no country can solve these challenges alone, said the representative for whom a stronger UN will meet the challenges of the international system today and in the years to come. Mr. Kayinamura pleaded for adaptation to the new challenges by relying on the aspirations of the people rather than on particular interests.
He also recommended strengthening international relations based on international law. The UN remains the universal body for an open, continuous and honest dialogue, according to the representative. All Member States must respect the provisions of the Charter in the maintenance of international peace and security. We must also strengthen multilateral cooperation, urged the representative. The world is integrated and globalized far too deeply for us to dismember and try to settle things alone, he warned. In this regard, the United Nations will become more relevant in the years to come, he predicted, provided everyone renews their commitment to a rules-based multilateral system. As part of the peaceful resolution of conflicts,
Mr. HAU DO SUAN (Myanmar) said that his country had always fulfilled its international obligations as a responsible Member of the United Nations. He said that the rise of unilateralism, nationalism and protectionism only aggravates the attacks on international law and multilateralism. In these critical times, the world needs more than ever a strong United Nations. He stressed the importance of respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, as well as the principle of non-interference. Any use of force or threat of use contravenes the principles of the Charter and international law. He urged the Council, in carrying out its mandate, to apply the principles of objectivity, impartiality and non-selectivity to all States, whether “large or small”. Any practice of double standards,
Mr. MOHAMMED HUSSEIN BAHR ALULOOM (Iraq) renewed its commitment to the principles and objectives of the Charter of the United Nations. He recalled that his country was among the 54 states that had designed the United Nations and the Charter. Regarding the situation in Iraq, he said that his country had won the battle against Daesh “by respecting the principles of the Charter”. On the other hand, continued the representative, some countries do not respect the Charter because they use force and do not respect the sovereignty of others. He complained about their actions which endanger the territorial integrity of his country and push him to the brink of war. We do not want our territory to become a center of conflict. “These acts would give free rein to the terrorists, warned the representative.
He said that since October of last year, Iraqis have been promoting their new vision of the future by dissociating themselves from the conflicts in the region. For its part, the Government responded to the demands of demonstrators. A new Electoral Code was adopted and the Election Commission was renewed. The representative stressed that Iraq will not be able to endure other new war adventures. “We are not the enemy of anyone, we are the friend of everyone,” argued the representative, who called on all parties to the dialogue. Also condemning the attacks and aggressions against Iraq, he called on the United Nations to do the same. He ended by calling for de-escalation and asking to diffuse the tensions.
Source: UN Security Council